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Visual Imagery

 Pictures or visual imagery and verbal narratives speak differently and have different potentials for building our knowledge and comprehension. Many of us tend to believe that a picture tells a story of thousand words and therefore visual imagery is better for communication than the verbal narratives. However a study by Hirsch et al. (2011) suggests that the people suffering from anxiety disorders have a preference of favoring verbal thinking over imagery and therefore they follow text more than visual images. The research studies on visual and verbal communication advocate that pictures are not that effective than the verbal statement, particularly in the context of presenting propositional statements.  Image texts, comprising interwoven pictures and text like the concept of ‘photo stories’ introduced by Mitchell, could provide a better tool for communication over the only textual or only pictorial form of communication.  Allan Paivio (1971, 1978) proposed the theory of cognition called the Dual-coding theory. He suggested that a person could expand on learned material in two ways either with the aid of verbal associations or utilizing the visual imagery. The theory postulates the use of both visual as well as verbal information to represent information. The processing of the visual and verbal information takes place along distinct channels in mind and distinct representations for the processed information are created using different mental codes. Both visual and verbal codes organize incoming information and they are retrieved for subsequent use when recalling information. Let us put it as when a person stores the stimulus concept, “bird” it is stored as both the ‘word  bird’ and also as the ‘mental image of a bird’ and when the same stimulus is recalled, the person retrieves the word or the image either individually or simultaneously. The ability to store the information as the code related to that stimulus in two different ways enhances the chance of remembering that item as compared to the manner if the same is done using only one way coding. Similarly when it comes to understanding a subject the text is processed in linear fashion within mind while the pictures are processed non-linearly. An adapted framework of Paivio’s dual coding theory has been outlined by Mayer (1996) for interpreting the cognitive processing of information.    A study by Langan-Fox et al. (2000) highlights the advantages of graphics in the process of knowledge acquisition beyond the explanations provided in terms of memory effect only. There has been an attempt to build theories which can explain the functions of verbal and visual information that assists the construction of mental models in learners of the subject matter portrayed in the verbal and visual material. The cognitive value of visual representations and visually-oriented processing has been aptly captured by Carpo et al. (2000), when they describe the advantages of visual argument. The visual argument has advantages of application allowing quick scanning of information as well as discovering patterns besides utilizing the strengths of learners like pattern recognition; recognition of geometric shapes and the processing by the right brain. It is thus established that different cues including verbal and visual imagery both are important in deciphering information and the relative importance depends upon the kind of information presented.



Crapo, A. W., Waisel, L. B., Wallace, W. A., & Willemain, T. R. (2000, August). Visualization and the process of modeling: a cognitive-theoretic view. In Proceedings of the sixth ACM SIGKDD international conference on Knowledge discovery and data mining (pp. 218-226). ACM.

Hirsch, C. R., Hayes, S., Mathews, A., Perman, G., & Borkovec, T. (2011, August 15). The Extent and Nature of Imagery during Worry and Positive Thinking in Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology.

Langan-Fox, J., Waycott, J. L., & Albert, K. (2000). Linear and graphic advance organizers: Properties and processing. International Journal of Cognitive Ergonomics, 4(1), 19-34.

Mayer, R. E. (1996). Learners as information processors: Legacies and limitations of educational psychology’s second.. Educational psychologist, 31(3-4), 151-161.

Paivio, A. (1971), Imagery and Verbal Processes (New York: Holt. Rinehart & Winston).

Paivio, A. (1978), “A Dual Coding Approach to Perception and Cognition,” in H. I. Pick and E. Saltzman, (eds.) Modes of Perceiving and Processing Information (Hillsdale. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates).


Q1. Discuss the qualities of a leader?

Erben and Guneser, Gul and Ayse (November 2008) Leadership is the process of influencing the behavior of the people in one’s own way. It facilitates the function of guiding, actuating and inducing subordinates to work with zeal and enthusiasm for the achievement of the objectives laid down. Leaders are considered to be the moving spirits, guiding stars and source of inspiration to their subordinates. A leader interprets the objectives of the business, suggests course of action and guides people to achieve the set objectives. It is a process of motivation. An effective leader must be intelligent and knowledgeable. He must be hardworking, objective, possess self-confidence and good communication skills. He must have the ability to guide and to maintain good human relations. He must be prepared to share responsibilities along with authority. A leader must inspire for cooperation among all the members and effective communication must be developed among the subordinates for better and there should be maximum utilization of physical resources.

Q2. Is the leader’s style autocratic, democratic, or laissez-faire? Why or why not?

Martindale, N (2011)Leadership styles were framed by Kurt Lewin in 1930 that provides the foundation of many approaches that was followed afterwards. The autocratic leaders make decisions without consulting to their team members even if their input is useful. But this is considered appropriate when quick decisions are to be made, team input is not necessary and an agreement is not necessary for a successful outcome. But this style has many drawbacks as it is very demoralizing and it leads to high level of absenteeism and also staff turnover. Democratic leaders include the team members in the decision making process to make the final decision. In this process people are engaged in projects and decisions and leaders also encourage creativity. There is high job satisfaction and high productivity in this style. But this style is not recommended when quick decisions are to be made. The laissez faire leader gives a lot of freedom to their team members to set their deadline and how do they work. They provide full support to their team members with resources and advice if needed. It provides high job satisfaction but it is also harmful if the team members do not manage their time well and if they do not have proper knowledge and skill required.

Q3.How does this leader help his or her followers achieve the organization’s goals?

Woods, A.P. (2010) the leadership initiates the work by communicating the policies and plans to the subordinates from where the work actually starts. He motivates the employees by providing monetary and non-monetary rewards and gets the work from the subordinates. He also guides and supervises the subordinates by instructing the way they have to perform their work effectively and efficiently. He creates confidence that can be achieved by expressing the work efforts to the subordinates by explaining them their roles and giving them guidelines to achieve the goals effectively.










Martindale, N (2011). “Leadership Styles: How to handle the different personas”. Strategic Communication Management. Retrieved 28/5/2011

Erben and Guneser, Gul and Ayse (November 2008). “The Relationship Between Paternalistic Leadership and Organizational Commitement:Investigating the Role of Climate Regarding ethics”.  Retrieved 12/1/2012.

Woods, A.P. (2010). “Democratic leadership: drawing distinctions with distributed leadership”. Retrieved 5/6/2010




American military Essay


Please discuss the issue of how American military forces should be employed in conflict abroad. Is it strictly the president’s call? What is Congress’s role? Are the restrictions in the War Powers Resolution of 1973 realistic? How should this issue be resolved?

The deployment of American military force should not only be based on the interest of America but the interest of the entire international community who will be directly or indirectly be affected by the action. A clear cost benefit analysis needs to be conducted to ensure that the benefits of using the military force far much outweigh the shortfalls. The presidents is responsible for giving orders on whether to deploy military action or not, but this needs to be done in consultation with the federal government as well as the Security Council (Mason, 2010).

The Constitution of the United States of America empowers the president to call for military action as the commander in chief. The constitution also gives powers to the Congress to declare wars. It has the ability to authorize hostilities at any level and fund them. In case of military attack within and outside U.S, the president has the legal mandate of ordering the U.S troop to attack their opponents in full combat. Since World War 2, the president of the United States of America has been given a big mandate of waging war. Since 1789, the United States president has been the commander in chief. Currently the president of U.S cannot just wage without the involvement of the congress unlike in the post-World War 2 era.   The constitution requires the contribution of the congress before a decision is made concerning the deployment of military force (Mason, 2010).

The 1973 war power resolution was introduced after thousands of US soldiers were killed. It required the president to consult the congress before deployment of the military outside US. This resolution has not worked since US presidents have often deployed the US of force without authorization of the Congress (Mason, 2010). For instance, Clinton ordered air strike on Serbia without the authority of the congress during his tenure as the president of US.


Kelo vs. the City of New London

Adjudication refers to the legal process of solving disputes. The US Supreme Court plays the role of adjudicating on petitions that have been brought forward by petitioners who are not convinced of decisions of the lower courts.

In the case against Kelo and the city of New London, the petitioners were petitioning the ruling of allowing the city of New London to acquire and develop land which rightfully belongs to them. An independent agency was hired by the city of New London for the revitalization of one its waterfront properties. The aim of the revitalization was creation of jobs and generation of revenue from taxes. The agency needed to accomplish this project by acquiring land. It was given the mandate to buy land. It managed to buy most of the property, but a few property owners refused to give out their properties. The supreme court of Connecticut agreed with the city of New London on this case since it was for the best interest of the city. The court claimed that the intention of the city of New London was in accordance with the Fifth Amendment. The ruling was petitioned in the Supreme Court of the United States of America. The US Supreme Court sustained the ruling of the Connecticut Supreme Court. It supported it ruling by say that the city of New London had a justified action, and it was not right to undermine their decision since it was based on the public interest (Laschever & Stoebuck, 2007).

The legal issue in this case was to consider whether the city of New London, had the the right to consider private property that is used for economical tenacities to be under the public use. The legal holding of the case was that four decisions out of five, the US Supreme Court declared that economic benefits that would be derived  from redevelopment of the property is considered as “public use” under the Fifth Amendment (Laschever & Stoebuck, 2007).


Public Policy on Poverty

Poverty affects millions of people in developing countries. Majority of the people in these countries live on less than one U.S dollar a day, which cannot afford to provide the basic human needs in the current tough economic time. Poverty is a condition that is characterized by having insufficient resources required to sustain life or lack basic human needs. There are two types of poverty namely absolute and relative poverty. Absolute poverty is due to lack of basic human needs such as food, shelter and clothing.  It is a major problem that affects developing countries. Relative poverty is whereby a comparison based on resources is done to determine the level of poverty. The degree of poverty in Africa forced major players and stakeholders to formulate policies that are aimed at addressing the poverty situation. Ministries, NGOs and Community Based Organization worked to together in coming up with, and executing economic stimulus programs in various parts of Africa. So far the past policies on poverty have not been effective in solving the problem (Handelman, 2011).

Effective Policies on Poverty

Policies on poverty need to come up with amicable mechanism of solving the problem. Solution can quickly be attained by address the causes and impacts of poverty, followed by the development of mechanism that will be employed to alleviate poverty. Policies that promote economic diversity, education and sustainable development should be implemented to restore growth and development in these nations (Handelman, 2011).

Lobbying and Government Intervention towards Alleviation of Poverty

There are a number of options available for governments of developing nation to employ so as to stabilize the economic status of their countries. They can source for donor funds or lend money from World Health Organization or IMF to raise capital needed to drive economic growth in their countries. Developing nations need to adopt education system that equips its citizen with the necessary skills needed to foster development in the nations. Diversification of economic activities will ensure that the nations do not rely on a single good or produce, thereby availing many options in case one fails to meet the expected need (Handelman, 2011).


Which federal agencies and cabinet departments are most important in determining the existence and causes of climate change?

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is one of the institutions that deal with climate change issues along other agencies and departments such as the department of agriculture, Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), and several other departments in US government (National Academies Press, 2009).
Which ones formulate and execute policies in response to assertions of climate change?

The president of United States is responsible for chairing and enforcement of legislations on climate change as the head of the federal government. The federal government approves policies that need to be executed by various agencies and departments to manage global warming and climate change. The Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force was established by president Barrack Obama in 2009 to coordinate the efforts of federal government in tackling the impacts of climate change.

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the main organization that is charged with the responsibility of formulating polies relating to climate change and global warming. It stipulates measure of reducing greenhouse gas emission into the environment. NOAA plays the role of helping society in understanding, planning for, and responding to climate variability and change. The organization achieves this by developing and delivering climate information services, implementing of the global observing system, and conducting focused research and modeling with the aim of understand climatic processes. NOAA is one of the main participating agencies in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) (National Academies Press, 2009).

The National Air and Space Administration (NASA) also play a big role in collecting information on climate change using its satellites on the air space. Various satellites in space have been put in place to record and transmit information on various activities on the atmosphere that interfere with the climate such as deforestation, and the shrinking ice laden poles of the earth. The department of defense and energy has adopted several strategies in the management and coordination of activities touching on climate change.



















Handelman, H. (2011). The Challenge of Third World Development. Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Prentice Hall. (

Laschever, E., & Stoebuck, W. B. (2007). Washington regulatory takings: the fallout since Kelo vs. New London. Eau Claire, WI: PESI, LLC ;.

Mason, R. C. (2010). Securing America’s borders the role of the military. Washington, D.C.?: Congressional Research Service.

Restructuring federal climate research to meet the challenges of climate change. (2009). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.


Paper about branding


Brand association and recognition very important factors that make and shape consumer behavior. Buying decision is prompted by what consumers are inclined to think as good and really a need to satisfy their urge to buy. If a product is able to give utility and good satisfying capacity then the product influences the consumer buying behavior. Consumers often go through six stages before buying a product. The most important stage is the information search.  Consumer tries to get a host of competitive information before selecting a product. This is the most important reason why marketers give most information about a product and its brand.

The consumer buying behavior is also based on the alternatives the are available for purchasing a product.  The purchase decision is very clearly influenced by many characteristics of product price and promotion which makes it the most valid issue while buying.  Consumers also evaluate their post purchase decision. This leads to recurrent consumer behavior.

The consumer buying behavior is a very important characteristic trait of marketers designing their 4 P’s.  Every aspect of consumer behavior goes in building brands. Firms study their consumer behavior to sustain in the market. Typically a consumer exhibits sometimes high personal involvement in the product when the product s very expensive and sometimes shows least involvement in buying like in the case of everyday regular purchases.


Kotler Philip, 2000, Marketing Management, 10th Edition, Prentice Hall, USA.





American InterContinental University


Observation: During the winter, you spread salt daily on your driveway to melt the snow. In the springtime, when the lawn begins to grow, you notice that there is no grass growing for about 3 inches from the driveway. Furthermore, the grass seems to be growing more slowly up to about 1 foot from the driveway.


Question: Might grass growth be inhibited by salt?

Winter times are the tough times every year in a since because you have to do so much to keep your yard healthy and safe. It’s when you shovel the snow, pave the driveway, and place salt down so that the ice doesn’t freeze up on your driveway and make it unsafe. Was wondering what happens to the grass around the driveway that gets salt on it. Considering you put the salt down just about every day until the weather becomes warmer. In my observation I noticed that the grass wasn’t growing right when the springtime comes back. With a little research I found that the salt raises the solute level of the soil around the plant root, since plants roots sometimes absorb water by raising the mineral level within the endodermis layer, actively, the amount of salt outside the root prevents water from entering the high solute level within the root. As well as possibly “sucking” water out of the cortex. There saying in simple terms plants need water to grown and get its nutrition from. With the salt having been put on every day for the amount of time it was winter it just collected and by time the springtime came around the water was unable to get to the root of the grass. With water not getting to the roots to help them grow they don’t grow or take longer to grow. Hypothesis is what would happen if there was a way to put a border protection for the grass so the salt doesn’t affect the grass. Prediction that there is so kind of salt that helps keep the ice gone and dissolves before springtime so it doesn’t affect the grass growing. I will try to find 3 different types of salt that prevents ice and is healthier for the grass. Went to a hardware store found three different salts products that seemed to work for the experiment. Was able to get sample packs, because that was all was needed. I also got the hardware store samples of grass to use as the grass in my experiment. Next I make an area where I would do the experiment. It had a small area of concrete where I would put the ice and so grass on the side of it. I did each salt one at a time with a few days between each one. I would put the salt on with ice water froze on the concrete and place salt on the ice and grass and put it in a safe area in the freezer. As each salt was put on I took a picture of before and after. As each came out the freezer I would let it sit outside for a few days with watering the grass and put what you would normally put on the grass to help it grow. I also took pictures of before and after during this process. Once that was done I recorded what the outcome was and what happened each day between the samples going in the freezer to being outside growing. As a result the salt product two was the most affective product. It didn’t completely hurt the grass, but the grass grow slow but not as slow as with regular salt.

In conclusion in all the experiment was a success in most ways I would say. The thing is salt is salt no matter what kind you get you really can’t change it too much, because if you do that than it wouldn’t be salt. I was able to find the best result to at least help grass during the winter instead of hurting it. It is really a hard thing because without the salt your home would be in danger, whereas with the salt your grass is in danger. I think that my experiment was a success, because I was able to find the best outcome to help both parties without changing any of the products. Meaning I was able to find a safer, lighter salt that didn’t harm the grass as bad but still did the job you needed it to do which was prevent ice from forming on your driveway.