Please discuss the issue of how American military forces should be employed in conflict abroad. Is it strictly the president’s call? What is Congress’s role? Are the restrictions in the War Powers Resolution of 1973 realistic? How should this issue be resolved?
The deployment of American military force should not only be based on the interest of America but the interest of the entire international community who will be directly or indirectly be affected by the action. A clear cost benefit analysis needs to be conducted to ensure that the benefits of using the military force far much outweigh the shortfalls. The presidents is responsible for giving orders on whether to deploy military action or not, but this needs to be done in consultation with the federal government as well as the Security Council (Mason, 2010).
The Constitution of the United States of America empowers the president to call for military action as the commander in chief. The constitution also gives powers to the Congress to declare wars. It has the ability to authorize hostilities at any level and fund them. In case of military attack within and outside U.S, the president has the legal mandate of ordering the U.S troop to attack their opponents in full combat. Since World War 2, the president of the United States of America has been given a big mandate of waging war. Since 1789, the United States president has been the commander in chief. Currently the president of U.S cannot just wage without the involvement of the congress unlike in the post-World War 2 era. The constitution requires the contribution of the congress before a decision is made concerning the deployment of military force (Mason, 2010).
The 1973 war power resolution was introduced after thousands of US soldiers were killed. It required the president to consult the congress before deployment of the military outside US. This resolution has not worked since US presidents have often deployed the US of force without authorization of the Congress (Mason, 2010). For instance, Clinton ordered air strike on Serbia without the authority of the congress during his tenure as the president of US.
Kelo vs. the City of New London
Adjudication refers to the legal process of solving disputes. The US Supreme Court plays the role of adjudicating on petitions that have been brought forward by petitioners who are not convinced of decisions of the lower courts.
In the case against Kelo and the city of New London, the petitioners were petitioning the ruling of allowing the city of New London to acquire and develop land which rightfully belongs to them. An independent agency was hired by the city of New London for the revitalization of one its waterfront properties. The aim of the revitalization was creation of jobs and generation of revenue from taxes. The agency needed to accomplish this project by acquiring land. It was given the mandate to buy land. It managed to buy most of the property, but a few property owners refused to give out their properties. The supreme court of Connecticut agreed with the city of New London on this case since it was for the best interest of the city. The court claimed that the intention of the city of New London was in accordance with the Fifth Amendment. The ruling was petitioned in the Supreme Court of the United States of America. The US Supreme Court sustained the ruling of the Connecticut Supreme Court. It supported it ruling by say that the city of New London had a justified action, and it was not right to undermine their decision since it was based on the public interest (Laschever & Stoebuck, 2007).
The legal issue in this case was to consider whether the city of New London, had the the right to consider private property that is used for economical tenacities to be under the public use. The legal holding of the case was that four decisions out of five, the US Supreme Court declared that economic benefits that would be derived from redevelopment of the property is considered as “public use” under the Fifth Amendment (Laschever & Stoebuck, 2007).
Public Policy on Poverty
Poverty affects millions of people in developing countries. Majority of the people in these countries live on less than one U.S dollar a day, which cannot afford to provide the basic human needs in the current tough economic time. Poverty is a condition that is characterized by having insufficient resources required to sustain life or lack basic human needs. There are two types of poverty namely absolute and relative poverty. Absolute poverty is due to lack of basic human needs such as food, shelter and clothing. It is a major problem that affects developing countries. Relative poverty is whereby a comparison based on resources is done to determine the level of poverty. The degree of poverty in Africa forced major players and stakeholders to formulate policies that are aimed at addressing the poverty situation. Ministries, NGOs and Community Based Organization worked to together in coming up with, and executing economic stimulus programs in various parts of Africa. So far the past policies on poverty have not been effective in solving the problem (Handelman, 2011).
Effective Policies on Poverty
Policies on poverty need to come up with amicable mechanism of solving the problem. Solution can quickly be attained by address the causes and impacts of poverty, followed by the development of mechanism that will be employed to alleviate poverty. Policies that promote economic diversity, education and sustainable development should be implemented to restore growth and development in these nations (Handelman, 2011).
Lobbying and Government Intervention towards Alleviation of Poverty
There are a number of options available for governments of developing nation to employ so as to stabilize the economic status of their countries. They can source for donor funds or lend money from World Health Organization or IMF to raise capital needed to drive economic growth in their countries. Developing nations need to adopt education system that equips its citizen with the necessary skills needed to foster development in the nations. Diversification of economic activities will ensure that the nations do not rely on a single good or produce, thereby availing many options in case one fails to meet the expected need (Handelman, 2011).
Which federal agencies and cabinet departments are most important in determining the existence and causes of climate change?
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is one of the institutions that deal with climate change issues along other agencies and departments such as the department of agriculture, Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA), and several other departments in US government (National Academies Press, 2009).
Which ones formulate and execute policies in response to assertions of climate change?
The president of United States is responsible for chairing and enforcement of legislations on climate change as the head of the federal government. The federal government approves policies that need to be executed by various agencies and departments to manage global warming and climate change. The Interagency Climate Change Adaptation Task Force was established by president Barrack Obama in 2009 to coordinate the efforts of federal government in tackling the impacts of climate change.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the main organization that is charged with the responsibility of formulating polies relating to climate change and global warming. It stipulates measure of reducing greenhouse gas emission into the environment. NOAA plays the role of helping society in understanding, planning for, and responding to climate variability and change. The organization achieves this by developing and delivering climate information services, implementing of the global observing system, and conducting focused research and modeling with the aim of understand climatic processes. NOAA is one of the main participating agencies in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) (National Academies Press, 2009).
The National Air and Space Administration (NASA) also play a big role in collecting information on climate change using its satellites on the air space. Various satellites in space have been put in place to record and transmit information on various activities on the atmosphere that interfere with the climate such as deforestation, and the shrinking ice laden poles of the earth. The department of defense and energy has adopted several strategies in the management and coordination of activities touching on climate change.
Handelman, H. (2011). The Challenge of Third World Development. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Prentice Hall. (acemyhw.com)
Laschever, E., & Stoebuck, W. B. (2007). Washington regulatory takings: the fallout since Kelo vs. New London. Eau Claire, WI: PESI, LLC ;.
Mason, R. C. (2010). Securing America’s borders the role of the military. Washington, D.C.?: Congressional Research Service.
Restructuring federal climate research to meet the challenges of climate change. (2009). Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press.